Region
Sub-Saharan Africa
Income Group
Lower middle income
GNI Per Capita ($US)
1,340
Population
46,050,302
Major Business City
Nairobi
64
Overall Score
Indicators

Indicators

Sub Indicators

Is there an officially approved national electrification plan?
Yes
If not, is there a draft electrification plan that has been prepared but not yet been approved?
No
Name of the electrification plan
Click for moreRural Electrification Master Plan ; Distribution Master Plan
Are the electrification plan and the updates publicly available?
Yes
When was the last update of the electrification plan?
2013
Is there an institution responsible for tracking progress of the plan?
Yes
Name of the tracking institution
Click for moreRural Electrification Authority
Is there a timeframe defined in the electrification plan?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Does the plan target a service level (e.g., power availability, number of guaranteed hours of power supply, etc.)?
No
Details on service level target
0
Does the electrification plan include both grid and off-grid?
Yes
Does the plan include community facilities?
Yes
Does the plan include productive use?
Yes
Are there geospatial maps conveying the timeframe of planned grid extension?
No
Are these geospatial maps made publicly available?
No

Sub Indicators

Does the government have a dedicated funding line or budget for electrification (e.g., funded national program, budget item, rural electrification fund to finance grid extension)?
Yes
Are there capital subsidies paid to the utilities to provide distribution systems to rural areas/villages?
Yes
Details on funding support for grid electrification
Click for moreFunds for last mile connectivity of rural customers
Are there consumer financing mechanisms (i.e., utility loans, on bill financing, micro-loans, etc.) and/or direct subsidies available to support the payment of connection fees by consumers?
Yes
Details on mechanisms to support the payment of connection fees
Click for moreStimaLoan for low-income families (loans at 5% administration fee - one-off payment) Subsidy for rural customers (connection costs of KSh. 15,000)
Does the government specify standards of performance on reliability along with new connections (e.g., number of guaranteed hours per day, etc.)?
No

Sub Indicators

Are minigrids legally allowed to operate in the country?
Yes
Name and date of the regulation for minigrids
Click for moreElectricity Licensing Regulation - 2012
Can minigrids be owned and operated by private operators?
Yes
Do regulations clarify what will occur when the interconnected grid reaches a mini-grid?
No
To convert from a power producer to a power distributor that buys electricity from the interconnected grid and resells to its local customers
No
To sell electricity to the interconnected grid operator and no longer sell electricity to retail customers
No
To sell its distribution grid to the interconnected grid operator and receive compensation for the sale of the asset
No
Other
No
Do the regulations detail procedures for consumers to get connected to minigrids?
Yes
Do the regulations differ by size of minigrids?
Yes
Are mini-grid operators legally allowed to charge a different tariff from the national tariff?
Yes
Is there a retail electricity tariff schedule for minigrids?
No
Examples of minigrid tariffs
Click for moreExamples among others: Access Energy, PowerHive, Kitonyoni etc.
Name of the regulation on minigrid tariffs
Click for moreElectricity Licensing Regulations - 2015
Are there publicly funded mechanisms to secure viability gap funding for operators?
No
Do subsidies exist for minigrids?
No
Details on subsidies for minigrids
0
Name of the document referring to minigrid subsidies
0
Do subsidies exist for power generators?
No
Do subsidies exist for energy storage systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for distribution systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for monitoring systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for other equipment related to minigrids?
No
Do duty exemptions exist for minigrid systems?
No
Details on duty exemptions for minigrids
N/A
Name of the document referring to mini-grid duty exemptions
Click for moreValue Added Tax Act - 2013
Do duty exemptions exist for power generators?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for energy storage systems?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for distribution systems?
No
Do duty exemptions exist for monitoring systems?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for other equipment related to minigrids?
No
Do subsidies exist for stand-alone systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for solar modules?
No
Do subsidies exist for batteries?
No
Do subsidies exist for charge controllers?
No
Do subsidies exist for power conditioning equipment?
No
Do subsidies exist for safety equipment?
No
Do subsidies exist for other equipment related to stand-alone systems?
No
Details on subsidies for stand-alone systems
0
Name of the document referring to subsidies for stand-alone systems
0
Do duty exemptions exist for stand-alone systems?
No
Details on duty exemptions for stand-alone systems
0
Name of the document referring to duty exemptions for stand-alone systems
Click for moreValue Added Tax Amendment Act - 2014
Do duty exemptions exist for solar modules?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for batteries?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for charge controllers?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for power conditioning equipment?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for safety equipment?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for other equipment related to stand-alone systems?
No
Are there legal restrictions that limit the prices standalone home system retailers or service providers can charge?
No
Are there specific financing facilities available to support operators/consumers to develop/purchase stand-alone home systems?
Yes
Are there specific market financing facilities available to support operators to develop stand-alone systems?
Yes
Are there specific government financing facilities available to support operators to develop stand-alone systems?
No
Are there specific market financing facilities available to support consumers to purchase stand-alone standalone systems?
No
Are there specific government financing facilities available to support consumers to purchase stand-alone standalone systems?
No
Are there technical standards detailing the requirements for minigrids to connect the grid?
No
Are technical standards made publicly available?
No
Name of the document detailing technical standards
0
Are there safety standards for minigrids?
No
Are these safety standards made publicly available?
No
Name of the document detailing safety standards
0
Does the government implement certification programs for minigrid installers?
Yes
Does the government provide or endorse certification programs for one or more components or equipment required for minigrids?
Yes
Has the government adopted international quality standards for stand-alone systems?
Yes
Name of the document detailing quality standards
Click for moreISO/IEC Guide 21-1: 2005
Has the government adopted international testing methods?
Yes
Does the regulation accept testing done elsewhere/in another country (vs in-country testing required)?
No
Is there a governmental certified program for solar equipment installers?
Yes
Are there environmental regulations on the disposal of solar devices and standalone home system products or components?
Yes
Name of document detailing environmental regulations
Click for moreSolar PV Regulations 2012

Sub Indicators

Are there publicly funded mechanisms to secure viability gap funding for operators?
No
Do subsidies exist for minigrids?
No
Details on subsidies for minigrids
0
Name of the document referring to minigrid subsidies
0
Do subsidies exist for power generators?
No
Do subsidies exist for energy storage systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for distribution systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for monitoring systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for other equipment related to minigrids?
No
Do duty exemptions exist for minigrid systems?
No
Details on duty exemptions for minigrids
N/A
Name of the document referring to mini-grid duty exemptions
Click for moreValue Added Tax Act - 2013
Do duty exemptions exist for power generators?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for energy storage systems?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for distribution systems?
No
Do duty exemptions exist for monitoring systems?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for other equipment related to minigrids?
No
Do subsidies exist for stand-alone systems?
No
Do subsidies exist for solar modules?
No
Do subsidies exist for batteries?
No
Do subsidies exist for charge controllers?
No
Do subsidies exist for power conditioning equipment?
No
Do subsidies exist for safety equipment?
No
Do subsidies exist for other equipment related to stand-alone systems?
No
Details on subsidies for stand-alone systems
0
Name of the document referring to subsidies for stand-alone systems
0
Do duty exemptions exist for stand-alone systems?
No
Details on duty exemptions for stand-alone systems
0
Name of the document referring to duty exemptions for stand-alone systems
Click for moreValue Added Tax Amendment Act - 2014
Do duty exemptions exist for solar modules?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for batteries?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for charge controllers?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for power conditioning equipment?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for safety equipment?
Yes
Do duty exemptions exist for other equipment related to stand-alone systems?
No
Are there legal restrictions that limit the prices standalone home system retailers or service providers can charge?
No
Are there specific financing facilities available to support operators/consumers to develop/purchase stand-alone home systems?
Yes
Are there specific market financing facilities available to support operators to develop stand-alone systems?
Yes
Are there specific government financing facilities available to support operators to develop stand-alone systems?
No
Are there specific market financing facilities available to support consumers to purchase stand-alone standalone systems?
No
Are there specific government financing facilities available to support consumers to purchase stand-alone standalone systems?
No
Are there technical standards detailing the requirements for minigrids to connect the grid?
No
Are technical standards made publicly available?
No
Name of the document detailing technical standards
0
Are there safety standards for minigrids?
No
Are these safety standards made publicly available?
No
Name of the document detailing safety standards
0
Does the government implement certification programs for minigrid installers?
Yes
Does the government provide or endorse certification programs for one or more components or equipment required for minigrids?
Yes
Has the government adopted international quality standards for stand-alone systems?
Yes
Name of the document detailing quality standards
Click for moreISO/IEC Guide 21-1: 2005
Has the government adopted international testing methods?
Yes
Does the regulation accept testing done elsewhere/in another country (vs in-country testing required)?
No
Is there a governmental certified program for solar equipment installers?
Yes
Are there environmental regulations on the disposal of solar devices and standalone home system products or components?
Yes
Name of document detailing environmental regulations
Click for moreSolar PV Regulations 2012
Are there national programs which aim to develop stand-alone systems or support the development of stand-alone systems?
Yes
Details on the national program promoting stand-alone systems
Click for moreRural Electrification Program run by REA and which aims at increasing access to electricity with a focus on public facilities (combination of grid connection and installation of stand-alone systems, mostly solar PV)

Sub Indicators

What is the annual cost of subsistence consumption (30kWh/month) as a percentage of GNI per household of bottom 20 percent of population?
Click for more1.81095416641047%
Tariff schedule / tariff structure taken into account
Click for moreThe Kenya Gazette, Gazette notice #281, January 2014
Is there a mechanism to support low-volume consumers such as cross-subsidization, social or lifeline tariff?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Are the financial statements of the largest generation company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest transmission company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest distribution company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest retail electricity sales company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest generation company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest transmission company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest distribution company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest retail electricity sales company audited?
Yes
Is the transmission loss rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Is the distribution loss rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Is the bill collection rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
No
Is the amount of electricity available for sale to end-users published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Is the utility operating an incidence/outage recording system (or SCADA/EMS with such functionality)?
Yes
Is the utility measuring the SAIDI and SAIFI or any other measurements for service reliability?
Yes
Are the measurements reported to the regulatory body?
Yes
Are the measurements available to public?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Current ratio (working capital ratio) of selected utility
25
EBITDA margin of selected utility
25
Debt service coverage ratio of selected utility
25
Days payable outstanding of selected utility
10.5592222222

Indicators

Sub Indicators

Is there legislation or a national action plan that aims to increase EE?
Yes
Name of EE legislation or action plan
Click for moreThe Energy Act - 26
Is there an energy efficiency goal or target at the national level?
No
Natonal target details
0
Is there a target for the residential sector?
Yes
Target details
Click for more(1) Distribute 2.5 million CFL lamps (2) Install solar water heaters in all qualifying premises
Does the target have a milestone or deadline?
Yes
Is there a commercial servcies sector target?
Yes
Target details
Click for morecompliance by all building owners with hot water requirement/ importers of electric equipment
Does the target have a milestone or deadline?
Yes
Is there an industrial sector target?
Yes
Target details
Click for moreCarry out energy audits
Does the target have a milestone or deadline?
Yes
Is there a power sector target?
Yes
Target details
Click for moresystem loss reduction
Does the target have a milestone or deadline?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to setting EE strategy?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to setting EE standards?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission/Kenya Bureau of Standards
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to regulating EE activities of energy suppliers?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to regulating EE activities of energy consumers?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to certifying compliance with equipment EE standards?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreKenya Bureau of Standards
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to certifying compliance with building EE standards?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission
Are there governmental and/or independent bodies dedicated to selecting and/or approving third party auditors tasked with certifying EE standards?
Yes
Name of entity
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission

Sub Indicators

Residential customers
Is it mandatory for utilities to provide reports of their energy usage, in a bill or by other means?
Yes
Commercial customers
Is it mandatory for utilities to provide reports of their energy usage, in a bill or by other means?
Yes
Industrial customers
Is it mandatory for utilities to provide reports of their energy usage, in a bill or by other means?
Yes
Residential customers
At what intervals do customers receive these reports (times per year)?
12
Do the reports include the price levels customers pay for energy usage?
Yes
Commercial customers
At what intervals do customers receive these reports (times per year)?
12
Do the reports include the price levels customers pay for energy usage?
Yes
Industrial customers
At what intervals do customers receive these reports (times per year)?
12
Do the reports include the price levels customers pay for energy usage?
Yes
Does the regulator track utilites' compliance with laws for providing energy usage information to customers?
No
Residential customers
Do customers receive a bill or report which compares them to other users in the same region and/or usage class?
No
Method of comparison
N/A
Commercial customers
Do customers receive a bill or report which compares them to other users in the same region and/or usage class?
No
Method of comparison
N/A
Industrial customers
Do customers receive a bill or report which compares them to other users in the same region and/or usage class?
No
Method of comparison
N/A
Residential customers
Do customers receive a bill or report that shows their energy usage compared to previous bills or reports over time?
Yes
Commercial customers
Do customers receive a bill or report that shows their energy usage compared to previous bills or reports over time?
Yes
Industrial customers
Do customers receive a bill or report that shows their energy usage compared to previous bills or reports over time?
Yes
All customers
Can customers access real time feedback on energy usage (for either prepaid or post-paid systems)?
Yes
Do customers have the ability to manage energy usage levels remotely (through apps or other technology mediums that can track real time usage?
No

Sub Indicators

Residential customers
Are customers charged a flat fee (per connection)?
Yes
Are customers charged constant block rates?
No
Are customers charged declining block rates?
No
Are customers charged increasing block rates?
Yes
Commercial customers
Are customers charged a flat fee (per connection)?
Yes
Are customers charged constant block rates?
Yes
Are customers charged declining block rates?
No
Are customers charged increasing block rates?
No
Industrial customers
Are customers charged a flat fee (per connection)?
Yes
Are customers charged constant block rates?
Yes
Are customers charged declining block rates?
No
Are customers charged increasing block rates?
No
Residential customers
Do customers pay energy charges (per kWh)?
Yes
Do customers pay demand charges (per kW)?
No
Do customers pay reactive power charges (per kVAR)?
No
Commercial customers
Do customers pay energy charges (per kWh)?
Yes
Do customers pay demand charges (per kW)?
No
Do customers pay reactive power charges (per kVAR)?
Yes
Industrial customers
Do customers pay energy charges (per kWh)?
Yes
Do customers pay demand charges (per kW)?
No
Do customers pay reactive power charges (per kVAR)?
Yes
Residential customers
Are customers charged based on real-time pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on variable peak pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on critical peak pricing?
No
Are tariffs adjusted according to seasons?
No
Do customers pay according to time-of-day electricity use or receive peak-time rebates?
No
Commercial customers
Are customers charged based on real-time pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on variable peak pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on critical peak pricing?
No
Are tariffs adjusted according to seasons?
No
Do customers pay according to time-of-day electricity use or receive peak-time rebates?
No
Industrial customers
Are customers charged based on real-time pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on variable peak pricing?
No
Are customers charged based on critical peak pricing?
No
Are tariffs adjusted according to seasons?
No
Do customers pay according to time-of-day electricity use or receive peak-time rebates?
No

Sub Indicators

What is the threshold for classifying large consumers?
Click for moreConsumption of over 1,200,000 kWh annually; Consumption of over 4,320,500 Mega Joules of energy annually
Large consumer EE mandate/incentive regulations
Click for moreKenya_The Energy_Energy_Management_Regulations_212
Is it required for the consumption and/or savings of large-scale energy users to be tracked and documented on a regular basis?
Yes
Are efficiency targets mandated for large consumers?
Yes
Details
Click for moreat least 50% savings of the identified energy savings from an audit, Installation of solar water heaters in all installations with hot water consumption exceeding 100 liters per day
Are energy audits mandated for large consumers?
Yes
Are energy efficiency progress reports mandated for large consumers?
Yes
Interval of reports
Annual
Are energy-management systems mandated for large consumers?
No
Details
0
Are there penalties in place for non-compliance with regulatory obligations for large consumers?
Yes
Is there a measurement and verification program in place?
Yes
Is verification done by a third party?
Yes
Are there financial incentives for large consumers to invest in energy efficiency?
No
Details
0
Are there tax incentives for large consumers to invest in energy efficiency?
No
Are there other incentives for large consumers to invest in energy efficiency?
No
Details
0
Is there a program to publicly recognize large-scale users that have achieved significant energy savings measures?
Yes
Are energy savings and/or financial savings publicized?
Yes
Does the program offer assistance (from a government or independent entity) to large-scale users to identify energy savings investments opportunities?
Yes
Primary Energy Consumption (MJ - latest GTF data from 2012)
82984

Sub Indicators

Are there binding energy savings obligations for public buildings?
Yes
Are energy savings from efficiency activities at public buildings tracked (either in-house or by a third party)?
Yes
Are there binding energy savings obligations for other public facilities (may include water supply, wastewater services, municipal solid waste, street lighting, transportation, and heat supply)?
Yes
Are energy savings from efficiency activities at other public facilities tracked?
Yes
Is there a specific policy or mandated guidelines for public procurement of energy-efficient products and services?
No
Public procurement guidelines for EE
Do public budgeting regulations and practices allow public entities to retain energy savings?
No
Public budgeting regulations for EE

Sub Indicators

Name of utility energy efficiency regulation program
Electricity generation
Are utilities required to carry out energy efficiency activities in this area?
No
Details
Are energy savings or other target indicators measured to track performance in meeting EE requirements?
No
Are the requirements measured/validated by an independent third party?
No
Are there penalties in place for non-compliance with EE requirements?
No
Are there mandates or incentives for new and/or brownfield co-generation?
No
Transmission & distribution
Are utilities required to carry out energy efficiency activities in this area?
Yes
Details
Click for moreReduce system losses to 16.8% in year 213/14, 16.6% 214/15 and 16.4% in 215/16
Are energy savings or other target indicators measured to track performance in meeting EE requirements?
Yes
Are the requirements measured/validated by an independent third party?
Yes
Are there penalties in place for non-compliance with EE requirements?
Yes
Demand-side management -
Are utilities required to carry out energy efficiency activities in this area?
Yes
Details
Click for moreInstallation of solar heaters in all qualified premises
Are energy savings or other target indicators measured to track performance in meeting EE requirements?
Yes
Are the requirements measured/validated by an independent third party?
Yes
Are there penalties in place for non-compliance with EE requirements?
Yes
Is there a demand-side management department within the selected utility?
Yes
Do utilities provide customers incentives for demand response, such as peak-time rebates?
No
Is there public budget funding available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Is there compensation for revenue losses via a tracking account available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are there credit lines available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are there partial risk guarantees available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Is there program cost recovery available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Is there ESCO financing available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Is there on-bill financing/re-payment available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
Yes
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
Yes
Are there any other financing mechanisms available for utilities to recover costs associated with or revenue lost from mandated energy efficiency activities?
0
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No

Sub Indicators

Residential sector
Are there tax incentives available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there discounted "green" mortgages available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is on-bill financing/re-payment available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are credit lines available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are energy services agreements or ESCOs available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are green bonds available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is vendor credit and/or leasing available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are partial risk guarantees available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there any other financing mechanisms available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Details
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Commercial services sector
Are there tax incentives available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there discounted "green" mortgages available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is on-bill financing/re-payment available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are credit lines available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are energy services agreements or ESCOs available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are green bonds available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is vendor credit and/or leasing available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are partial risk guarantees available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there any other financing mechanisms available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Details
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Industrial sector
Are there tax incentives available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there discounted "green" mortgages available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is on-bill financing/re-payment available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are credit lines available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are energy services agreements or ESCOs available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are green bonds available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Is vendor credit and/or leasing available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are partial risk guarantees available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are there any other financing mechanisms available for energy efficiency investments?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No
Details
Are these available as solely market-driven financing mechanisms without any direct government approval, subsidy, authorization or other mediation procedure?
No
Are these available as government-driven financing mechanisms?
No

Sub Indicators

EE standards regulations
Click for moreKenya_Energy Appliances Perfromance and Labelling regulations
Refrigerators
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
Yes
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
Yes
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
Yes
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Air conditioners
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
Yes
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
Yes
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
Yes
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Lighting equipment
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
Yes
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
Yes
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
Yes
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Industrial electric motors
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
Yes
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
Yes
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
Yes
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Other industrial equipment
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
No
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
No
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
No
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Light duty vehicles
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
No
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
No
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
No
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No
Heavy duty vehicles
Have minimum energy performance standards been adopted?
No
Details of standards
0
Is there a verification program in place?
No
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Is there a penalty for non-compliance with energy efficiency standards?
No
Are the standards based on external/international standards?
No

Sub Indicators

Refrigerators
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Air conditioners
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Lighting equipment
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Industrial electric motors
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
Yes
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Other industrial equipment
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
No
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
No
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Light duty vehicles
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
No
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
No
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No
Heavy duty vehicles
Have energy efficiency labeling schemes been adopted?
No
Is the labeling scheme mandatory?
No
Is the labeling scheme based on external/international standards?
No

Sub Indicators

Are there energy efficiency codes for new residential buildings?
No
Are there energy efficiency codes for new commercial buildings?
No
Is the energy efficiency code for new residential buildings its own stand-alone, separate code or part of the overall building code?
No
Is the energy efficiency code for new commercial buildings its own stand-alone, separate code or part of the overall building code?
No
19.2. Is there any provision for regular updates to the code for new residential buildilngs?
No
19.2. Is there any provision for regular updates to the code for new commercial buildings?
No
EE building code regulations
19.3. When was the code last updated for residential buildings?
0
19.3. When was the code last updated for commercial buildings?
0
Is there a system to ensure compliance with building energy efficiency codes?
No
Is it carried out by a third party?
No
Are renovated residential buildings required to meet a building energy codee?
No
Are renovated commercial buildings required to meet a building energy code?
No
20.1. Is the energy efficiency code for renovated residential buildings different from the code for new buildings?
No
20.1. Is the energy efficiency code for renovated commercial buildings different from the code for new buildings?
No
Is the energy efficiency code for renovated residential buildings its own stand-alone, separate code or part of the overall building code?
No
Is the energy efficiency code for renovated commercial buildings its own stand-alone, separate code or part of the overall building code?
No
Is there any provision for regular updates to the code for renovated residential buildings?
No
Is there any provision for regular updates to the code for renovated commercial buildings?
No
Is there a mandatory standardized rating or labeling system for the energy performance of existing buildings?
No
22.1. Is the labeling scheme or rating adopted from external standards?
No
Are commercial and residential buildings required to disclose property energy usage at the point of sale or when leased?
No
Are large commercial and residential buildings required to disclose property energy usage annually?
No
Are there mandates or targets for new building stocks to achieve high quality energy efficiency certifications, such as LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) (e.g. percentage of new building stocks that must be LEED certified)?
No
Details
0
LEED incentives
No
Local program details
0

Sub Indicators

No Subindicators Found.

Indicators

Sub Indicators

Does a legal framework for renewable energy development exist?
Yes
Name of the Law
Click for moreKenya Energy Act - 2007
Is private sector ownership of renewable energy generation legally authorized?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Does an official renewable energy target exist?
Yes
Overall target
Click for moreRE share of 4300Mw, 8068Mw total installed capacity,Percentage of RE generation 53%
Solar target
Wind target
636 Mw
Hydro target
1320 Mw
Biomass target
44 Mw
Geothermal target
2300 Mw
Does a renewable energy action plan or strategy to attain the target exist?
Yes
Name of the action plan
0
Does the plan or startegy define the amount of investment necessary to meet the RE target?
Yes
The amount of investment identified
0
Is there an institution responsible for tracking progress in renewable energy development?
Yes
Name of the institution
0
Does an electricity generation plan that includes renewable energy development exist?
Yes
Name of the generation plan
0
Is the expansion plan based on a probabilistic approach?
Yes
Does the current transmission planning consider renewable energy scale-up?
Yes
Name of the transmission plan
0
Has the country conducted a variable renewable energy integration study?
No
Name of the integration study
0
Year of the integration study
Does the country have sufficient resource abundance to warrant a solar resource atlas?
Yes
Does the government publish or endorse a solar resource atlas or other data on the abundance and quality of the resource?
Yes
Solar atlas is validated by at least 5 ground-based measurements taken for a period of at least a year;
No
Solar atlas has a spatial resolution of 5km or less;
No
Solar atlas is based on modeling inputs covering at least a 10 year period;
No
Solar atlas is accompanied by an explanation of the methodology and instrumentation
No
Has the country carried out strategic planning or produced zoning guidance to inform the commercial development of solar resources?
No
Has the solar resource planning or zoning guidance been undertaken as part of a strategic environmental and social assessment or equivalent process?
No
Are the solar resource planning or zoning guidance outputs publically available?
No
Does the country have sufficient resource abundance to warrant a wind resource atlas?
Yes
Does the government publish or endorse a wind resource atlas or other data on the abundance and quality of the resource?
Yes
Wind atlas is validated by at least 5 ground-based measurements taken for a period of at least a year;
Yes
Wind atlas has a spatial resolution of 5km or less;
Yes
Wind atlas is based on modeling inputs covering at least a 10 year period;
Yes
Wind atlas is accompanied by an explanation of the methodology and instrumentation
Yes
Has the country carried out strategic planning or produced zoning guidance to inform the commercial development of wind resources?
No
Has the wind resource planning or zoning guidance been undertaken as part of a strategic environmental and social assessment or equivalent process?
No
Are the wind resource planning or zoning guidance outputs publically available?
No
Does the country have sufficient resource abundance to warrant a hydro resource atlas?
Yes
Does the country publish or endorse a national hydro resource map or atlas?
No
Hydro atlas is validated by ground-based water run-off data and/or site surveys from potential sites;
No
Hydro atlas is accompanied by an explanation of the methodology and instrumentation
No
Has the country carried out strategic planning or produced zoning guidance to inform the commercial development of hydro resources?
No
Has the hydro resource planning or zoning guidance been undertaken as part of a strategic environmental and social assessment or equivalent process?
No
Are the hydro resource planning or zoning guidance outputs publically available?
No
Does the country have sufficient resource abundance to warrant a biomass resource atlas?
Yes
Does the country publish or endorse a national biomass resource map or atlas?
No
Biomass atlas is validated by ground-based survey or officially reported data;
No
Biomass atlas is accompanied by an explanation of the methodology and instrumentation.
No
Has the biomass resource planning or zoning guidance been undertaken as part of a strategic environmental and social assessment or equivalent process?
No
Are the biomass resource planning or zoning guidance outputs publically available?
No
Does the country have sufficient resource abundance to warrant a geothermal resource atlas?
Yes
Does the country publish or endorse a national geothermal resource map or atlas?
Yes
The governmetn has collected and recorded well data at potential geothermal sites?
Yes
Does the government publish a national geological map?
Yes
The government has supported surface exploration (geological; geochemical; temp; gradient) at potential sites?
Yes
The government has supported test drilling at at least one site (slim bore or full well)?
Yes
The government has supported the creation of a reservoir model at at least one site?
Yes
Has the country carried out strategic geothermal resource planning or produced zoning guidance to inform the commercial development of the resource?
No
Has the geothermal resource planning or zoning guidance been undertaken as part of a strategic environmental and social assessment or equivalent process?nt process?
No
Are the geothermal resource planning or zoning guidance outputs publically available?
No

Sub Indicators

Is there at least one scheme to support renewable energy per unit of electricity generated? (e.g., feed-in tariff, competitive bidding/auction, mandates, generation premiums, production tax credits)?
Yes
Feed-in tariff
Yes
Feed-in tariff - Solar
Yes
Feed-in tariff - Wind
Yes
Feed-in tariff - Hydro
Yes
Feed-in tariff - Biomass
Yes
Feed-in tariff - Geothermal
Yes
Government body in charge
Click for moreEnergy Regulatory Commission
Projects guaranteed off-take
Yes
Solar Feed-in-tariff Price ($ cents/kWh)
12
Solar Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (single)
Click for more10MW OFFGRID_x000D_40MW GRID
Solar Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (total)
100MW
Solar Feed-in-tariff Closing date
Click for moreNot indicated_x000D_(Capacities less than 10Mw ceize to be eligible when their total capacity equals 10% of overal installed capacity
Wind Feed-in-tariff Price ($ cents/kWh)
11
Wind Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (single)
50MW
Wind Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (total)
500MW
Wind Feed-in-tariff Closing date
Click for moreNot indicated_x000D_(Capacities less than 10Mw ceize to be eligible when their total capacity equals 10% of overal installed capacity
Hydro Feed-in-tariff Price ($ cents/kWh)
8
Hydro Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (single)
20MW
Hydro Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (total)
200MW
Hydro Feed-in-tariff Closing date
Click for moreNot indicated_x000D_(Capacities less than 10Mw ceize to be eligible when their total capacity equals 10% of overal installed capacity
Biomass Feed-in-tariff Price ($ cents/kWh)
10
Biomass Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (single)
40MW
Biomass Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (total)
200MW
Biomass Feed-in-tariff Closing date
Click for moreNot indicated (Capacities less than 10Mw ceize to be eligible when their total capacity equals 10% of overal installed capacity
Geothermal Feed-in-tariff Price ($ cents/kWh)
9
Geothermal Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (single)
70MW
Geothermal Feed-in-tariff Max. capacity (total)
500MW
Geothermal Feed-in-tariff Closing date
Click for moreNot indicated_x000D_(Capacities less than 10Mw ceize to be eligible when their total capacity equals 10% of overal installed capacity
Competitive bidding
Yes
Auction 1 - Year
2014
Auction 1 - Technology
Geothermal
Auction 1 - Project-specific tender and size (MW)
Click for morePHASE 1 MENENGAI GEOTHERMAL FIELD - 105MW
Auction 1 - Auction for total and size (MW)
N/A
Auction 1 - Standard PPA and Term
25 years
Auction 1 - Price ceiling
Yes
Auction 1 - Winning bid ($ cents/kWh)
Auction 1 - Government body in charge
Click for moreGeothermal Development Company
Auction 2 - Year
N/A
Auction 2 - Technology
Auction 2 - Project-specific tender and size (MW)
Auction 2 - Auction for total and size (MW)
Auction 2 - Standard PPA and Term
Auction 2 - Price ceiling
No
Auction 2 - Winning bid ($ cents/kWh)
Auction 2 - Government body in charge
Winning bid guaranteed off-take
Yes
Mandates
No
Generation premium
No
Production tax credit
No
Does the government offer other direct fiscal incentives for renewable energy (e.g. capital subsidies, grants or rebates, investment tax credits, tax reductions?)
Yes
Investment tax credit
No
Accelerated depreciation
No
Reduction in import taxes
Yes
Reduction in sales tax or other taxes
Yes
Does the country provide prioritized access to the grid for RE?
Yes
Do RE projects receive priority in dispatch?
Yes
Are there provisions to compensate seller if offtake infrastructure is not built in time?
No
Are there mechanisms to compensate RE projects for lost generation due to certain curtailments after project commissioning?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Is the market entry mechanism for private RE projects defined? (e.g. 1st come 1st served; tenders)
Yes
Details
0
Are projects subject to development timelines or milestones?
Yes
Are tariffs indexed (in part or in whole) to an international currency or to inflation?
Yes
If there is a guaranteed tariff, is there a mechanism to adjust the level of the tariff for new entrants (e.g., declination)?
Yes
If there is a guaranteed tariff, is there a mechanism to differentiate tariffs based on the size of the generation plant?
Yes
If there is competitive bidding/auctions, are there provisions to ensure full and timely project completion (e.g., bid-bonds, project milestones, eligibility requirements)
Yes
If there is a renewable energy mandate, can it be met with tradable certificates (e.g., RECs, ROCs, TECs)?
N/A
Is the price subsidy/benefit implied by a renewable energy incentive program passed through in full or in part to the final electricity consumer?
Yes

Sub Indicators

Are there rules defining the allocation of connection costs?
Yes
What is the type of the connection cost allocation policy (i.e. shallow/deep)?
Deep
Are there rules that allow electricity customers to purchase power directly from a third party (i.e. an entity other than the designated utility in a service area)?
No
Do the rules define the size and allocation of costs for transmission and distribution wheeling charges? (e.g., wheeling charges, locational pricing?)
N/A
Do the rules consider customer type/size in determining eligibility for purchasing electricity from a third party?
N/A
connection cost document
FIT POLICY 2012
Does the country have a grid code that includes measures or standards addressing variable renewable energy?
No
Is there more than one balancing area in the country?
No
Are there rules for exchanging power between balancing areas that penalize variable renewable energy (e.g. through imbalance penalties)?
N/A
Are there provisions in the power exchange rules that allow for plant forecasting?
N/A

Sub Indicators

Does the government offer or allow backing of utility payments (e.g. through a letter of credit, escrow account, payment guarantee, or other)?
No
Information disclosure
29
Are the financial statements of the largest utility publicly available?
0
Are the financial statements of the largest generation company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest transmission company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest distribution company publicly available?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest retail electricity sales company publicly available?
Yes
Are the following metrics published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
0
Is the transmission loss rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Is the distribution loss rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Is the bill collection rate published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
No
Is the amount of electricity available for sale to end-users published in a primary official document (by the utility, regulator or ministry and/or government)?
Yes
Information Auditing
33
Financial statements independently audited?
0
Are the financial statements of the largest generation company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest transmission company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest distribution company audited?
Yes
Are the financial statements of the largest retail electricity sales company audited?
Yes
Monitoring Reliability
0
Is the utility operating an incidence/outage recording system (or SCADA/EMS with such functionality)?
Yes
Is the utility measuring the SAIDI and SAIFI or any other measurements for service reliability?
Yes
Are the data reported to the regulatory body?
Yes
Are the data available to the public?
Yes
Name of the selected utility
Click for moreKenya Power and Lighting Co. Ltd. (KPLC or Kenya Power)
data - 17.1. Current ratio (working capital ratio)
1
data - 17.2 Debt Service Coverage Ratio
2
data - 17.3 Days payable outstanding
123
data - 17.4 EBITDA margin
0
Current ratio (working capital ratio) of selected utility
25
Debt Service Coverage Ratio of selected utility
25
Days payable outstanding of selected utility
11
EBITDA margin of selected utility
25

Sub Indicators

Is there a carbon pricing mechanism in place?
No
For any carbon pricing mechanism (e.g. carbon tax, emission trading system), what is the portion of national GHG emissions covered)?
0%
Is there a monitoring, reporting and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions in place?
No
  • Score : 67-100
  • Score : 34-66
  • Score : 0-33
Policy Framework
Planning
YesElectrification Plan
Grid Electrification
YesElectrification Budget
YesSubsidies for utility
YesConsumer financing or subsidies
NoGovernment-mandated performance standards
Mini grids
YesMini-grids legally allowed
YesAllowed to charge flexible tariffs
NoRegulations/standards covering interconnection with main electricity grid
NoMini Grids: Subsidies: whole system
NoMini Grids: Subsidies: generators
NoMini Grids: Subsidies: storage
NoMini Grids: Subsidies: distribution
NoMini Grids: Subsidies: other
NoMini Grids: duty exemptions: whole system
YesMini Grids: duty exemptions: generators
YesMini Grids: duty exemptions: storage
NoMini Grids: duty exemptions: distribution
NoMini Grids: duty exemptions: other
NoTechnical standards publicly available
YesGovernment certifications: installers
YesGovernment certifications: equipment
Stand-alone systems regulations and incentives
YesNational support programs
NoSubsidies: whole system
novalueSubsidies: solar modules
NoSubsidies: other
Noduty exemptions: whole system
Yesduty exemptions: solar modules
Yesduty exemptions: other
YesFinancing mechanisms: for operators
NoFinancing mechanisms: for consumers
YesQuality standards
Affordability
YesSupport for low-volume consumers
National Plans
YesEE legislation or action plan
NoNational EE target: overall
YesNational EE target: residential
YesNational EE target: commercial
YesNational EE target: industrial
YesNational EE target: power sector
Customer billing and pricing
YesReport electricity consumption to consumers: residential
YesReport electricity consumption to consumers: commercial
YesReport electricity consumption to consumers: indusdrial
YesReport electricity price to consumers: residential
YesReport electricity price to consumers: commercial
YesReport electricity price to consumers: industrial
NoTime of use pricing: residential
NoTime of use pricing: commercial
NoTime of use pricing: industrial
Large consumers
novalueMandatory energy usage tracking
YesEE requirements: consumption tracking
YesEE requirements: targets
YesEE requirements: energy audits
YesEE requirements: other
NoEE incentives: financial incentives
novalueEE incentives: tax incentives
NoEE incentives: other
Public entities
YesEE obligations for public facilities
NoEE public procurement requirements
Utilities
NoMandates: generation
YesMandates: T&D
YesMandates: DSM
Standards and labeling
YesEE standards: refrigerators
YesEE standards: air conditioning
YesEE standards: lighting
YesEE standards: industrial electric motors
NoEE standards: other industrial equipment
NoEE standards: vehicles
YesEE labels: refrigerators
YesEE labels: air conditioning
YesEE labels: lighting
YesEE labels: industrial electric motors
NoEE labels: other industrial equipment
NoEE labels: vehicles
Building codes and incentives
YesEE building codes: residential
NoEE building codes: commercial
Legal Framework
YesPrimary legislation governing RE
novaluePrivate ownership of generation legally authorized
Planning
YesRenewable energy target: overall
44 MwRenewable energy target: biomass
2300 MwRenewable energy target: geothermal
1320 MwRenewable energy target: hydropower
Renewable energy target: solar
636 MwRenewable energy target: wind
YesRenewable energy strategy
YesGeneration plan including RE
YesTransmission plan including RE
NoVariable RE integration study complete
NoResource maps: Biomass
YesResource maps: Geothermal
NoResource maps: Hydro
YesResource maps: Solar
novalueResource maps: Wind
Incentives and Regulatory Support
YesGeneration support scheme: feed-in tariff
YesGeneration support scheme: competitive bidding
NoGeneration support scheme: other
YesFiscal incentives
YesPriority dispatch
Network connection and access
YesConnection cost rules
NoThird party use of system
NoGrid code covering RE
Sector Structure and Statistics
Annual electricity generation (GWh)
8059.6
Length of transmission system
N/A
Length of distribution system (km)
51638
T&D loss rate (2-year average where available)
0.18
Bill collection rate (2-year average where available)
0.99
Level of competition
Single Buyer
Level of unbundling
Partially vertically unbundled
Private sector participation
PSP in G & D
IPP capacity share
14.78
Retail Tariffs
Selected retail / distribution + retail utility
Kenya Power and Lighting Co. Ltd. (KPLC or Kenya Power)
Retail electricity tariff (average of all end-users)
USD 0.1
Retail electricity tariff (residential)
USD 0.18
Retail electricity tariff (commercial)
N/A
Retail electricity tariff (industrial)
N/A
Generation Mix
Institutions, Utilities and Market Operators
Energy Ministry / Planning Entity
Ministry of Energy and Petroleum
Separate Electricity Regulator (year established)
Energy Regulatory Commission (2006)
Transmission System Operator
None
Independent System Operator
KETRACO
Wholesale Market Operator
N/A